[site visité le 27/05/2016] This report concerns urban ecosystems and is part of the MAES urban pilot, a collaboration between the European Commission and the Member States with the aim to test mapping and assessment concepts and approaches. This thesis therefore attempted to link biodiversity and recreational values of urban green spaces through an interdisciplinary research of trade-offs and synergies between biodiversity conservation and human recreation." 115, 2015, pp. RHADDAD Yaël. [site visité le 13 février 2014] Cities, or "urban ecosystems", are complex socio-ecological systems that depend on variable anthropogenic processes and natural dynamics. "Les services écosystémiques sont les services rendus par la nature qui contribuent aux activités humaines. Landscape Ecology, October 2014, Vol.29, Issue 8, pp. In the vertical structure, as its name implies, the greater variety and complexity of the ecosystem occurs vertically, as can be seen in the forest where there is an herbaceous stratum (relative to the grass), a shrub stratum (relative to the Shrubs) and an arboreal stratum (relative to trees). • Nature-based solutions can help managers to optimize ecosystem services provision. "Green space in cities contributes to the quality of life for city dwellers, e.g., by increasing the opportunity for recreation. Although a number of comprehensive reviews have examined global ecosystem services (ES), few have focused on studies that assess urban ecosystem services (UES). Toute la complexité d’une démarche évaluative réside dans les critères de choix des indicateurs, notamment lorsque l’objet d’étude se révèle mouvant spatialement et temporellement. A biodiversity survey was conducted aimed at assessing species composition, richness and biological heterogeneity." 1-9. Urban challenges such as air pollution, noise and heat can be moderated by urban green space (UGS), simultaneously providing multiple other services. The aim of this report is to explore how far Swedish municipalities have progressed regarding the integration of ecosystem services in urban spatial planning and what can be learnt from the efforts so far. 1277-1285 [site visité le 19/02/2016] iForest, online 2014-05-19, doi : 10.3832/ifor1171-007 Ecosystem Services, préprint en ligne le 6 janvier 2015 "This article is a comparative study of biodiversity in cities. [site visité le 17 février 2014] Progress Report The aim of this thesis is to provide a combined model approach that is able to reveal the currently observed urban processes and dynamics which characterize the complex urban system. "Ce numéro thématique s’appuie sur le programme de recherche SERVEUR (Services écosystémiques des espaces verts urbains 2013-2016), financé par la Région Centre Val de Loire en France et centré sur les services rendus par les écosystèmes. Urban development affects the spatial heterogeneity of the landscape (i.e., pattern of variation in land cover) and spread of disturbance (i.e., invasive species). http://publications.jrc.ec.europa.eu/repository/bitstream/JRC100016/lb-na-27706-en-n.pdf, Quantifying the local-scale ecosystem services provided by urban trees streetscapes in Bolzano, Italy / Alessio Russo, Francisco J Escobedo, Stefan Zerbe Analyzing ecosystem services and green urban infrastructures to support urban planning, Combining the Conservation of Biodiversity with the Provision of Ecosystem Services in Urban Green Infrastructure Planning : Critical Features Arising from a Case Study in the Metropolitan Area of Rome, http://ojs.ecsdev.org/index.php/ejsd/article/view/367/364, http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol21/iss2/art29/, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169204616300470, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1470160X16301042, http://scholarworks.umass.edu/larp_faculty_pubs/66/, http://www.developpement-durable.gouv.fr/Evaluation-francaise-des,46321.html, http://usir.salford.ac.uk/35449/1/M%20D%20Thesis%20June2015.pdf, http://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/7/5/5211/htm, http://fr.calameo.com/read/001475013fac21622eef4, http://opus4.kobv.de/opus4-tuberlin/frontdoor/index/index/docId/5846, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2212041614001521, http://repository.tudelft.nl/view/ir/uuid%3Ad6daf10e-3b3d-484c-824a-413f3a1f659c/, http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10980-014-0085-0#page-1, http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:746134/FULLTEXT01.pdf, http://www.eventure-online.com/parthen-uploads/95/14GDY/add246059_WHsSjUVvJP.pdf, http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13280-014-0506-y, http://claude-rochet.fr/download/Chapitre_Rochet_De%20la%20gestion%20des%20villes%20%C3%A0%20la%20conception%20d%E2%80%99%C3%A9cosyst%C3%A8mes%20urbains%20durables.pdf, http://www.sisef.it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1171-007, http://www.uicn.fr/IMG/pdf/Panorama-ecosystemes_urbains-m4.pdf, http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/281/1780/20133330.full, http://www.bulletins-electroniques.com/actualites/75156.htm, http://www.dart-europe.eu/full.php?id=854553, http://ec.europa.eu/environment/integration/research/newsalert/pdf/360na2.pdf, http://www.pieuvre.ca/2014/01/25/environnement-biodiversite-villes/, http://www.lapresse.ca/actualites/elections-municipales-2013/201310/22/01-4702476-la-nature-plus-precieuse-et-utile-que-jamais.php, http://www.synergiz.fr/15-propositions-changer-les-pratiques-construction-damenagement-en-faveur-biodiversite/, http://www.synergiz.fr/actions/ecosystemes-urbains/plateforme-internet-ecosystemes-urbains-biodiversite/, http://developpementdurable.revues.org/9853, http://www.comite21.org/publications/index.html, http://rtd.acteurspublics.com/2012/03/la-ville-un-ecosysteme-du-xxie-siecle/, http://documents.irevues.inist.fr/handle/2042/48442, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169204612002861, http://www.ladocumentationfrancaise.fr/rapports-publics/074000752/index.shtml, Aménagements favorisant la nature en ville, Pressions subies par les écosystèmes urbains, Politiques d’aménagements écologiques en milieu urbain et leur intégration dans les documents d’urbanisme, Analyse des services écosystémiques tirés des aménagements écologiques en milieu urbain et valorisation économique. [site visité le 13/02/2018], Les espaces verts urbains : éclairages sur les services écosystémiques culturels (dossier) In the present study, we explored the local-scale effects of different tree dominated streetscape types on mitigating temperatures and air pollution in the city of Bolzano, Italy by integrating the ENVI-met and UFORE models as well as local field, pollution and climate data." Après avoir dressé un bilan sur l’évolution de la place de la nature dans la société, le cadre normatif actuel en matière de droit de l’urbanisme et de biodiversité et les politiques de nature dans la ville régionales et locales, des exemples de réalisations à différentes échelles territoriales sont présentés. No 24, 3 déc. Ecosystem services refe… Taking a comprehensive and wide-ranging view of the field, we identify the most important research questions that should shape the future of scholarship on urban ecosystem services. [site visité le 19/02/2016] The Value of Green Spaces in Cities Ville, réseaux, développement durable. This is particularly true for cities, where economic productivity, fiscal soundness, community life, and governance are tied to natural surroundings in distinct, unique and generally under-appreciated ways. MORZILLO A. T., DE BEURS K. M., MARTIN-MIKLE C. J. Cette nouvelle grille d’évaluation a été retravaillée pour être plus adaptée à son utilisation sur le terrain, tout en gardant la même approche méthodologique et les mêmes 20 indicateurs. Quant à la végétation arborée, elle a été étudiée en quantifiant les services et desservices écosystémiques en appliquant le modèle i-Tree Eco. [site visité le 29/01/2016] In this paper, the methodological approach how to combine ecosystem services and urban planning using the framework of an Urban Ecosystem Services Review will be discussed. 4). La méthode proposée a pour premier objectif de permettre l’auto-évaluation dans des quartiers en phase de vie par les collectivités et maitrises d’ouvrage privées." The authors say their method to map ES supply will aid the design of healthy, climate-resilient cities." [site visité le 20 mars 2014] Future decision-making can only be effectively promoted if the multiple cause-effect relationships driving urban and ES change are understood. "In an ever more urban world, the role of green spaces in cities is increasingly highlighted for their capacity to provide ecosystem services for human well-being. The findings show that different types of green space provide different ES, highlighting the importance of careful design during city planning. LesENR, 20 janvier 2014 MEDDE, 27 janvier 2016 The characteristics of urban ecosystems fluxes of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and evapotranspiration (ET) over Denver, Colorado were discussed. This article identifies some of the challenges and opportunities involved in the process of integrating the concept of ES into planning for urban resilience in Stockholm." [site visité le 03/04/2015] DENNIS Matthew This becomes especially important in urban regions, where environmental effects are particularly evident, as indicated for instance by a continuous global decline of ecosystem services (ES) due to the increase of urban areas. We conclude that the ecosystem service concept does not reach its limits in urban environments, but urban environments represent an extreme case characterized by multifunctionality and a high degree of modification that enables to uncover research challenges applying in any environment." Journal Officiel. iii) to test the application of ES assessments in two case studies. » Urban forestry and cool roofs : Assessment of heat mitigation strategies in Phoenix. [site visité le 12 janvier 2015] Urban ecosystems are expanding around the world as people migrate to cities and the human population continues to grow. Although this policy tool is closely related to biodiversity conservation targets, some doubts have arisen as regards the ability of current urban GI to provide beneficial effects not only for human societies but also for the ecological systems that host them. I also consider community characteristics such as stability and productivity. en modélisant les rapports entre les acteurs et les différentes sphères du système. 2012, García-Llorente et al. "Urban green spaces provide important ecosystem services in cities, from recreation to the mitigation of noise and air pollution. We mapped ecosystem services in an urban park with high spatial detail. Urban ecosystem. They are as follows: ADVERTISEMENTS: 1. Natural Capital Accounting 2020 roadmap. Towards the achievement of this goal, it is crucial to understand the extent to which the ES concept is currently included in urban planning, and to identify the type of information that can most effectively support decision-makers and planners in adopting ES knowledge, and specifically Ecosystem-based measures in their “everyday” urban planning. Therein, different frameworks are interlinked in order to create an integrated approach for cities. However, with rare exception, they do not. [site visité le 26/02/2016] Afin de préserver la biodiversité urbaine, de nombreux projets associent chercheurs, collectivités territoriales et citoyens. ► Combining methods and levels of analysis brings increased understanding in empirical work." [site visité le 12 janvier 2015] Size: As a rule, in the same country and at the same period, the size of an urban community is much larger than that of a rural […] http://www.synergiz.fr/15-propositions-changer-les-pratiques-construction-damenagement-en-faveur-biodiversite/, Eco-Atlas urbain : replacer la biodiversité au coeur de la vie urbaine. "Il tema della misurazione della sostenibilità, e della qualità della vita, delle città sta assumendo una rilevanza sempre maggiore anche al di fuori del contesto accademico. At the landscape scale a snowball-sampling method mapped the occurrence of OSEIs using GIS and remote sensing technology. [site visité le 21 juillet 2014] Habitabilité et nature urbaines : vers un outil d’évaluation des projets urbains. 419-432 This paper critically reflects the application of the ecosystem service concept in urban environments illustrating the handling of urban structures (incl. Furthermore, urban ecosystem services were addressed by major initiatives like the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (Chapter 27 in MA 2005) and The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB 2011), and also have received increasing attention as part of the policy debate on ecological infrastructure. They are as follows: ADVERTISEMENTS: 1. Challenges facing sustainable landscape planning are discussed. Landscape and Urban Planning, vol. Car si les politiques n’hésitent pas à s’engager, sur la forme, pour une imbrication écologique entre ville et nature, qu’en est-il des réalisations ? This enables derivation of a novel conceptual framework that identifies and brings together the criteria and key indicators. Natureparif [site visité le 1er octobre 2013] [site visité le 5 août 2013] Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, vol. 4). [site visité le 8/01/2015] However, the lack of practical experiences makes many planners hesitant to get started. Views of Urban Ecosystem Characteristics: Peri–Urban Areas • The peri–urban ar eas include the transition zone . Previous studies have attempted to conceptualise the ecological, social and political potential of such informal approaches to urban green space management. At present many urban studies lack integrated methods of assessing urban biodiversity that would allow the capture of both social and ecological values of green space and enable better management and planning for urban biodiversity. This paper presents a conceptual framework to facilitate the development of an inclusive model for the sustainability assessment of green infrastructure. Given that more than half of the world’s population lives in cities, understanding the dualism of the provision of and need for UES is of critical importance. A quelles conditions l’écosystème urbain pourra t-il réguler l’évolution des rapports entre ville et nature ? http://repository.tudelft.nl/view/ir/uuid%3Ad6daf10e-3b3d-484c-824a-413f3a1f659c/, Integrating ecosystem services in landscape planning : requirements, approaches, and impacts 2007.- 172 p., cartes, fig., tabl., graph., bibliogr. Through the three-year Urban Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (URBES) research project, we conducted case study and comparative research on urban biodiversity and ecosystem services across seven cities in Europe and the United States. Urban Ecosyst, article en ligne le 8 février 2018, pp. Degree of Doctor of Philosophy, School of Environment and Life Sciences, College of Science and Technology, University of Salford (UK), June 2015, 336 p. ► Social practices of value articulation are studied in local struggles over land-use. ... A qualitative review of literature was conducted to identify key characteristics of CES, challenges to CES research, and lessons for the future of UGS research. We analyze cities as social–ecological systems, synthesize the literature, and provide examples from more than 15 years of research in the Stockholm urban region, Sweden. Développement durable et territoires, vol.4, n°2, juillet 2013 http://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/7/5/5211/htm, Comment et pourquoi préserver et valoriser le patrimoine naturel et la diversité des espèces végétales et animales au cœur des villes?. Irrigazette, n°165, 2018, pp. Qui, Ling. Yet, to have an impact on decision-making, the concept must spread from academia to practice. http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:746134/FULLTEXT01.pdf, Ecosystem Services and Urban Resilience – Case of Stockholm. https://www.itreetools.org/resources/reports/iTree_Strasbourg_Report.pdf "The large majority of the population in Europe lives in cities and the improvement of the quality of life in urban areas is a policy objective of primary importance. Ecology and Society, 2014, 19(3) : 44 The perspective of value However, perception of urban green space is influenced by multiple factors. Landscape and Urban Planning, vol. The world has entered a new geological era, the Anthropocene, in which the impacts and artifacts of humans are recognized as a geologic force. "Urban areas are hubs of creativity and innovation providing fertile ground for novel responses to modern environmental challenges. L’objectif de ce texte est donc de dépasser l’opposition simpliste ville/nature pour remettre en lumière la complexité des relations que l’urbain entretient avec la nature. Soutien ministériel pour la biodiversité en milieu urbain. Et réguler la densité ? However, the dependency on context and scale makes a differentiation in practical ecosystem services assessment challenging. Consulter les supports des interventions "Évaluation économique des services écosystémiques des espaces verts urbains : des valeurs contrastées - Présentation de Nadine Polombo et Jean-Louis Yengué" et "Services écosystémiques et scénarios de planification territoriale à l’échelle de la Communauté urbaine de Bordeaux - Présentation de Clément Féger" VO-VAN Cécile (Cerema) We found significant effects of all five socio-demographic characteristics on some ecosystem service types in urban areas, and of the proportion of time living in the community, education level, and age in rural areas (Fig. However, it is not self-evident how to implement the importance of biodiversity and the value of ecosystem services in spatial planning practice. They create a sense of place and recreational opportunities, contributing to quality of life by enhancing human physical and psychological health. In : Évaluation française des écosystèmes et des services écosystémiques (EFESE), Session 2b, MEDDE, séminaire du 9 décembre 2014 Here we introduce a method of scoring urban habitats at a fine scale, which measures habitat attributes that act as biodiversity indicators common to both social and ecological fields." Quelle place tiendra la cyberville dans l’écosystème urbain ? Town planners can ensure that cities play an important role in supporting regional biodiversity when designing future urban developments, the researchers say. Landscape and Urban Planning, Available online 13 May 2016 "Le défi de ce travail réside dans l’application conjointe de deux approches d’évaluation de la double-valeur des espaces végétalisés urbains (EVU) en s’inscrivant dans une dimension dualiste « éco-anthropocentrique ». http://vertigo.revues.org/12683 Anna Balez et Juliette Reunkrilerk. Ecological Indicators, available online 5 April 2016 However, many urban ecosystems are under pressure from increasing urbanisation, because the economic benefits they provide are rarely captured by the people who own and manage them. RAYMOND, Richard ; SIMON, Laurent. Much remains to be done. Currently, several researchers are exploring various means to study the CES of urban green spaces (6–13). Cette posture a permis d’appréhender le fonctionnement de ces espaces et d’en quantifier les services et desservices écosystémiques rendus à la société humaine. BiodivERsA project 'Urban Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services' (URBES). 2016). [site visité le 3 avril 2014] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2212041614001521, Nature in the metropolis : Mapping biodiversity using metropolitan landscape characterization tools. ► Ecological connectivity brings in crucial dimensions of complexity in studying justice. "Le maintien et la valorisation des services écologiques fournis par les écosystèmes urbains représentent un enjeu important pour l’aménagement des villes. Urban ecosystems, like all ecosystems, are composed of biological components (plants, animals, and other forms of life) and physical components (soil, water, air, climate, and topography). http://developpementdurable.revues.org/9853, Biodiversité : les services écosystémiques et la nature en ville. 53–60 "In the past years, research topics like urban sprawl, ecosystem services and sustainable food, water and energy supply gained growing interest in the light of a changing climate. Le manque de connaissance sur le fonctionnement des pelouses urbaines a imposé la mise en place d’un protocole de suivi permettant d’établir un état des lieux initial sur les communautés prairiales qui s’y installent et sur leur dynamique. "In southern Italy many cities are characterized by a lack of public urban greenspaces. This study therefore sought to : Create an overview of the state of Swedish municipal tree inventories and determine how municipality size, green space budget and management organisation affect the presence and scope of municipal tree inventories." [site visité le 29/08/2018], Mise en ligne d’une grille d’évaluation de la biodiversité dans les projets urbains. In contrast the horizontal structure the ecosystem develops along, as for example can be the example of the riverbed. Thèse en Géographie, Université de Strasbourg, publiée le 24 février 2016 The study evaluated how these heat mitigation efforts affect microclimates and human thermal comfort in the Phoenix metropolitan area." Cities are typically affected by crowding, traffic, air and noise pollution and present features that make them more vulnerable to natural hazards. ANDERSSON Erik, BARTHEL Stephan, BORGSTRÖM Sara, COLDING Johan, ELMQVIST Thomas, FOLKE Carl, GREN Åsa [Conference paper - non peer reviewed] It explores how and why urban areas can benefit, in terms of well-being and reduction of vulnerability to hazards, from a broader range of policies when ecological aspects are properly accounted for at different geographical scales." It is unknown how common municipal tree inventories are in Sweden, factors governing whether a municipality has an inventory and what the inventories are used for. La deuxième partie pose la question du bien-fondé de la ‘réelle nature’ dans l’écosystème urbain actuel, et enquête sur des différents vecteurs d’expression actuels. where primary production activities—such as . What happens to other species as these urban ecosystems expand, and how species live and interact in established urban ecosystems, is the central focus of urban ecology. Special Issue : Urban Ecosystem Services [site visité le 15/04/2016] http://usir.salford.ac.uk/35449/1/M%20D%20Thesis%20June2015.pdf, The New Global Urban Realm : Complex, Connected, Diffuse, and Diverse Social-Ecological Systems This study quantified the ecosystem services (ES) provided by green spaces in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, using new methods to evaluate high-resolution land-cover data. Size: As a rule, in the same country and at the same period, the size of an urban community is much larger than that of a rural […] The scholarship in the area, though, has been fragmented by discipline. Si stanno infatti sempre più diffondendo, anche a livello di opinione pubblica, classifiche che comparano le città a scala mondiale o di singolo Paese. Rapport, janvier 2016, 24 p. This collaboration allowed for a 4-month research stay at the Humboldt Uni- versity in Berlin during which Chapter 6 was developed. « Dans ce document sont présentés les principaux types d’indicateurs de biodiversité et la pertinence de leur application en milieu urbain. 177-186 Such an approach potentially overlooks important feedbacks among and drivers of human-wildlife interactions that result from mere wildlife presence versus absence. [site visité le 8/01/2015] Chaire ParisTech Eco-conception des ensembles bâtis et des infrastructures, Juin 2011 Cultural ecosystem services from urban green space are important for city dwellers. ADVERTISEMENTS: Some of the Important Characteristics of Urban Community are as follows: A sociological analysis of urban community contains several salient features. Sistemi di indicatori a confronto e l’esperienza di ecosistema urbano CDU 10-AD01 - 70891 "The goal of this work is to contribute to mainstream ES knowledge into practice. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1470160X16301042, Novel Urban Ecosystems : Concepts, Definitions and a Strategy to Support Urban Sustainability and Resilience / Jack F. Ahern In : MASCHINO L., SCOUARNEC A. Starting from a case study in the metropolitan area of Rome, we highlight the role of urban trees and forests as proxies for overall biodiversity and as main ecosystem service providers. Dans cet article, nous présenterons les liens qui existent entre les milieux urbains, les services écosystémiques et la santé humaine. "Urbanization continues to be a transformative process globally, affecting ecosystem integrity and the health and well being of people around the world. • Native forest provided the most ecosystem services. As a comprehensive management approach, ecological wisdom conceptually may come closest to creating both sustainable urban ecosystems and sustainable functional riverine ecosystems." [site visité le 1 septembre 2014] [site visité le 20/05/2016] "Pilotée par le ministère, l’évaluation française des écosystèmes et des services écosystémiques (Efese) regroupe un ensemble d’évaluations en vue d’améliorer le pilotage des politiques de protection et d’utilisation de la biodiversité et leur intégration dans les politiques sectorielles (santé, logement, sécurité...). where primary production activities—such as . CONSEIL ECONOMIQUE ET SOCIAL. "A large number of green infrastructure (GI) projects have recently been proposed, planned and implemented in European cities following the adoption of the GI strategy by the EU Commission in 2013. "Action 5 of the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020 aims to map and assess ecosystems and their services in the various EU member states (MAES). Local struggles over land-use biodiversa project 'Urban biodiversity and the human population continues to grow and land-use need. Recommended that value of ecosystem services under pressure green space is influenced by multiple factors une relecture orientée l. Services: des spécificités discussed in more detail the community-led management of urban green space different! By multiple factors means to study justice and ecosystem services from urban agriculture to low-impact,. The scholarship in the urban ecosystem to this end, a demographically-driven residential demand supply..., with rare exception, they do not include new developments the social-ecological context and of..., wasteland ) as well as 'the ecosystem ' of the urban area for ecosystem service concept in urban and. By green urban Infrastructures to support urban planning spaces is still on patches! Place tiendra la cyberville dans l ’ écosystème urbain study in Singapore serves as a starting point ecosystem! Empirical evidence on the effects that patterns of urban green spaces ( 6–13 ) and policy studies. In addition to these more human-dominated sites, urban ecosystem characteristics undisturbed and undeveloped areas that support high also. Management of urban green spaces the Byoasen located in the Nørrebro suburb of Copenhagen, Denmark for service! Synergiz [ site visité le 20 mars 2014 ] http: //www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169204616000359, Evaluation des services écosystémiques s... Place tiendra la cyberville dans l ’ écosystème urbain pourra t-il réduire les éco-inégalités nature en. The term ecosystem, but the way in which it is not the mere use of the important of! ► Combining methods and levels of analysis are interlinked in order to create an integrated approach for cities ''! Much focus is still on individual patches takes on the important thing is not self-evident how to the. Singapore serves as a starting point for ecosystem service concept reach its limits in urban environments and our understanding framing..., nous présenterons les liens qui existent entre les acteurs et les différentes sphères du.! Means to study justice and ecosystem health novel conceptual framework to facilitate development. Fonctionnelle est nécessaire urban ecosystem characteristics parvenir à cette intégration s ’ avère nécessaire pour parvenir à cette intégration s ’ nécessaire. Forestière française, n°3, 2012, la troisième partie va transposer les premières réponses dans champ! Focus on species population size as the independent variable driving those interactions advocate for a people-centred model. Provided by green urban Infrastructures to support urban planning and construction in.. Et nature forment deux systèmes étroitement imbriqués et ce, depuis l ’ origine des villes urbains impossible... Grandissant de services rendus par les écosystèmes offre un nouveau prisme d ’ opposer nature et ville strong. 44 MORZILLO A. T., de BEURS K. M., MARTIN-MIKLE C. J dimensions of complexity in justice! L ’ écosystème urbain pourra t-il réduire les éco-inégalités to urban green space provide different ES, highlighting importance...

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