“Each tree has its own personality and you never know what is going to happen or what it is going to be,” says Dillard. People were doing it out of memory. The Black Ash tree has a ring-porous quality that allows it to be pounded into splints for use in basketry. These baskets are made from the annual growth rings of the Black Ash Tree. Then it happened: a glimmering emerald ash borer landed on her shoulder. Black ash trees are uniquely suited for basketmaking, and members of Vermont’s Abenaki community and many others have made baskets from this tree for centuries. However, it can colonize all of the 16 ash tree species in North America, and it is partial to black and green ash. “Together, we were able to learn so much about the styles unique to our own areas,” says Church. “It was devastating.”, Smaller than a penny, deceptively beautiful emerald ash borer beetles have killed millions of ash trees in North America during the past two decades. Photo courtesy U.S. Forest Service, The emerald ash borer larvae burrow through a tree’s inner bark, leaving “galleries” behind that that disrupt the tree’s ability to transport water and nutrients. To show the shortage of black ash, she started making baskets out of venetian blinds. Longaberger wall basket black ash 1991 CMM made in USA Dresden Ohio country folk art rustic craft leather trim American primitive HypnoticaVintage. Basketry is one of the oldest crafts in human history, and yet the knowledge of making these simple, and once essential, vessels has become a rarity in the modern age. In her Michigan community, says Dillard, “If you ate well or had new shoes for your kids, it was because you made baskets.”, By early 20th century, more Native people were living in urban areas. To separate the annual growth rings, the log is laid down and its end pounded with the blunt end of an ax. Curls often decorate Penobscot and other communities’ fancy baskets. Adriana Greci Green is a curator of Indigenous Art of the Americas at The Fralin Museum of Art at the University of Virginia. Black Ash Basketry. Here you can get to know a little more about me, learn more about the materials and everything that goes into making a black ash and sweetgrass basket. When she pulled off a section of a tree’s bark, she was shocked: its inner bark was covered with extensive “galleries,” S-shaped tunnels dug by boring insect larvae. Discover (and save!) Learn every step of traditional black ash basketry in this forest-to-basket class! “It’s an amazing story that anyone recalls making baskets,” Dillard says. An average tree lives 35 to 100 years, but some can survive more than 200 years. Black Ash Basket Kits. Black ash basket weaving is a … Black Ash Pack Baskets. Photo by Jennifer Neptune, Church's husband, Jeff Strand, helps fell and carry the heavy logs out of the forest. As part of Smithsonian’s American Women’s History Initiative, Isaac worked with the Recovering Voices team to enable Church, Parrish, Dillard and Neptune to visit NMAI’s Cultural Research Center and NMNH last fall. Eric makes many of his baskets that he teaches available in kit form that can be made at home. McCullough and her colleagues dubbed the metallic-colored beetle the “emerald ash borer,” or EAB. Oct 14, 2012 - This Pin was discovered by Anne Cuthbert. “I just sat there and cried,” she recalls. My first exposure to splint baskets was through the work of the Shaker and Taghkanic basketmakers whose communities were near my home in the upper Hudson Valley of New York State. Another factor that impacted basket making was that beginning in the late 1800s and well into the 20th century, U.S. government officials forced American Indian children into boarding schools, where teachers forbade them to continue their cultural practices. She is a board member of the Abbe Museum (a Smithsonian Affiliate) and is the head of the Penobscot Nation Museum and the Maine Indian Basket Makers Alliance, which has more than 100 members. “It makes a hole. Dillard and Neptune demonstrated how they make a black ash basket while Church and Parrish taught children and their families to make their own. Depending on the thickness, it may be split … “Any basket maker worth her salt has had her boots sucked off her feet,” says Dillard laughing. Black ash, Fraxinus nigra, grows in cedar swamps in the Great Lakes region, Northeastern United States, and Eastern Canada.It has compound leaves, rough grey bark, and a somewhat stubby branching pattern. The strongest baskets in New England are made from strips of wood processed from brown ash trees. Trees can usually survive such damage from a few native boring insects, but this was massive. Dillard says she asks the tree for its permission to be taken and then tells it, “They are going to love you. Photo courtesy of U.S. Forest Service, Sarah Medawis Church (left, with her niece, Nancy, in Allegan County, Michigan, in the 1930s) was a skilled basket maker and the great-grandmother of contemporary basket artist Kelly Church. your own Pins on Pinterest Dillard says that “from bush to basket and all the steps in between, it is a spiritual process.” When she is weaving, she calls her ancestors home. Meanwhile, many tribes are working with the USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service and U.S. Forest Service on “biocontrols,” releasing Asian wasps that feed on EAB on their reservations. Camping is available by request. Photo courtesy of Kelly Church, Renee Wasson Dillard pounds a black ash log to split the wood into strips, which are fed into a splitter (next image). There’s nothing that can replace black ash.” It is even part of the Penobscot people’s creation story. The film begins with a trip by members of the Pigeon family into a swampy area of the woods where the cold, wet soil is favored by the black ash tree. I strip an 8-10 log of its bark then pound its length with a steel mallet. This splint is smaller, thinner for basketry (small to miniature), NOT for use on chair seats. If all else fails, some tribal members, including Church, have collected hundreds of black ash seed samples, many of which have been sent to the USDA National Laboratory for Genetic Resources Preservation in Fort Collins, Colorado. If the tree is not appropriate, the hole will be patched with mud and the gatherer will move on. Black Ash Baskets. Recently, she wove with her 8-year-old granddaughter and 9-year-old grandson. Ironically, the insect that is devastating these basket makers’ ash trees may be making them more determined to preserve their heritage. Hello! Visit our Online Store for prices. Each has a rough and a smooth side. Native weavers in what is now the Great Lakes and Northeastern United States and eastern Canada have known for centuries that when it comes to a hard but flexible wood that can be coaxed, bent and twirled into a basket, nothing compares to black ash. I’ve done a lot of reading and research about working with bark and all winter I’ve been w… It was remarkable.”, All of the weavers agreed that what they enjoyed most was being able to share their observations and skills. Now this unique species is disappearing before their eyes. Photo by NMAI Staff, Dillard will frequently add feet to her baskets to help stabilize them. Public Speaking and Lecture Inquiries welcome. There’s a long tradition of black ash splint basketry in North America. There were acres and acres of ash, and it is all gone,” she says. But turns out, the proof was right in front of her. When the eggs hatch, the larvae burrow into and feed on the inner bark, leaving trails that disrupt the tree’s ability to transport water and nutrients. He personally makes all the materials in your kit and are “made-to-order” so lead times may be lengthy. Splints are smooth on both sides and especially prepared for refined work. Later, resort tourism in some towns developed a market for “fancy” baskets, ones decorated with complex curls or colored with dyes made from berries or other natural materials. This is a daily course, please bring your own food. Photo by NMAI Staff, Parrish smells a century-old Potawatomi basket to see if she can confirm its type of wood. Neptune says in her community, people take on different tasks in the basket-making process. She explains that the sturdy wood of black ash was first used to create utilitarian baskets to carry food or other heavy objects. Basketry is possibly the oldest of crafts. Black ash basket consulting available. The process of making a black ash basket starts in the woods, usually a muddy swamp. Yet they are not giving up without a fight. Black ash trees grow in isolated pockets of cool, wet ground throughout the northeastern U.S. and southeastern Canada. Once you have identified a stand of black ash trees you will have to select one for use. Greci Green says, “getting the tree, hauling it out—young people didn’t want to do that backbreaking work.”. Black ash trees are uniquely suited for basketmaking, and members of Vermont’s Abenaki community and many others have made baskets from this tree for centuries. For years, she searched for a historical tie between black ash basketry and her community, with no luck. Course Overview. Smaller than a penny, these deceptively beautiful bugs have killed millions of ash trees in North America during the past two decades—and they show no signs of stopping. She now uses cedar and basswood to weave baskets and bags, and she is helping refurbish her community’s meeting houses with bulrush mats. Photo courtesy of Renee Wasson Dillard, To make splints for weaving, strips of black ash wood are fed up through the splitter, pulled apart and smoothed. MAGAZINE OF SMITHSONIAN'S NATIONAL MUSEUM OF THE AMERICAN INDIAN, In 2014, Renee Wasson Dillard was standing near her truck, getting ready to put on her rubber boots and walk into her “honey hole”—her favorite grove of black ash trees a few miles from her Anishinaabe community on the northwest coast of Michigan. 5 out of 5 stars (877) 877 reviews $ 32.95. The art of weaving inspired by black ash basketry may continue, although for some, it has taken on a different form. Indigenous to China and South Korea, EAB does not kill healthy Asian ash species. Many people are also unaware of or have ignored U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) quarantines barring the transport of ash trees, logs or firewood from infested states. Detroit Institute of the Arts, Detroit, MI, black ash demonstrations, two weekends during grand reopening of school: 2006: ARTrain USA, Ann Arbor, MI, black ash demonstration: Wayland Public Library, Wayland, MI, black ash demonstration: Symposium Basket Gathering, Monterey, MI, black ash … McCullough remembers receiving the call in June 2002 to go out to look at some sick ash trees near Detroit. Since the 19th century, basket makers may have sold their works to local farmers and resort tourists. Uniquely designed and crafted baskets from North American Black Ash, hand-pounded by Eric. Talking about one of the many such baskets that she found in the collection, she says, “To see that actual basket up close and the details. Parrish adds, “It was fantastic to be in their presence and able to learn in the traditional way: through conversations with baskets in hand.”, Church encourages others to come to NMAI’s Cultural Resources Center to learn from the collections and keep basket making alive for their people and their ancestors. The best time to cut a tree is in the Spring when the sap is rising, but cutting can take place at other times in the year. Each piece of wood is treated with respect. Mini Splint is recommended for miniature baskets up to 3 inches. The mold is NOT included in the kit, but most molds are used to create several different baskets. Age: 18 and up. Photos by NMAI Staff, NMAI Collections Manager Kelly McHugh talks about the resources available to Native researchers. Photos by NMAI Staff, At a workshop at Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History, Parrish teaches how to weave a black ash basket, using water to make the wood pliable. Basketry. Instructor: Ian Andrus. Dance wand, Munduruku people, basketry and feathers - South American collection - Peabody Museum, Harvard University - DSC05694.JPG 3,240 × 4,320; 4.46 MB DC - Foto Serra No 108 - Rapaz Balanta (Bissau).jpg 1,031 × 1,632; 358 KB With millions of ash trees at risk, so is much of Native basket making. “It is vital for community members to spend time with their heritage objects and be able to record all of this knowledge,” says Gwyneira Isaac, NMNH curator of North American Ethnology. We offer Basketry and Birch Bark biting workshops, and presentations about Anishnabe Fiber arts and Black ash basketry and the threat of EAB, geared for larger audiences. The black ash pack basket: it's beautiful, highly functional and can be made using simple materials. However, if a choice tree is found, it is thanked for what it is about to offer. At the two museums, they examined more than 140 baskets that were mostly from Ojibwe, Passamaquoddy, Penobscot, Mohawk and Seneca communities. The first part of the class will be spent preparing black ash splint for your basket by pounding a locally harvested log. In the early 1900s, anthropologist Frank Speck collected many basswood baskets from Neptune’s community, taking the knowledge of how they were made with him. Photo courtesy of the Church family, Kelly Church (left) shows her fellow basket makers how to choose a straight, basket-quality tree. The black ash pack basket: it's beautiful, highly functional and can be made using simple materials. The program “utilizes the best of both museums,” says NMAI Collections Manager Kelly McHugh. (In New Hampshire, the trees are called brown ash and in other regions of New England they are called black ash.) Made of black and white ash, elm, basswood, bulrush and sweetgrass, they ranged from those that were more than century old to contemporary art pieces. Since 2009, this initiative has enabled 35 groups from Indigenous communities around the globe to come to Washington, D.C., and interact with items related to their cultures in Smithsonian archives. By Emily Umentum, guest contributor. A Silent Killer: Black Ash Basket Makers are Battling a Voracious Beetle to Keep Their Heritage Alive, https://www.facebook.com/NationalMuseumoftheAmericanIndian, https://www.youtube.com/user/SmithsonianNMAI. Course Information. The first part of the class will be spent preparing black ash splint for your basket by pounding a locally harvested log. “I touched every Penobscot basket so they knew we were there.”. For fancy baskets, these will be smoothed and sometimes split into thinner splints for decoration. Jennifer Neptune, a Penobscot basket maker from Maine’s Indian Island who has been creating intricate baskets for 30 years, agrees: “I’ve tried different trees. Anne Bolen is assistant managing editor of American Indian magazine. All of the presenters talked about how their art is at risk from EAB and what everyone can do to help stop its spread, including learning how to inject their own trees with a targeted insecticide and not transporting firewood from ash trees. The Emerald Ash Borer Information Network reports the insect is now found in 35 states and the Canadian provinces of Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Manitoba. Even so, EAB was discovered in Maine in 2018. Anthropologists and historians seem to disagree about the origins of splint wood basketry there, whether it was first introduced by Swedish settlers, or whether there was an existing tradition amongst the … There are many different nations who have made Black Ash Baskets, ranging from about the middle of Ontario or Michigan, right through Quebec, New York to the Atlantic coast as far south as New Jersey. The team’s education efforts will continue in their communities and beyond. “They are happy when we are still using the baskets.”, “As you create a basket, you put in a lot of tradition and a piece of yourself or your spirit,” explains Neptune. Although I processed already harvested bark and learned to weave with it down south, actually finding, cutting down, and harvesting the bark from the trees is a new adventure! “My body is moving in the same motions that my ancestors have,” she says. The researchers suspect the invasive insect was transported to the United States on wooden crates, pallets or dunnage. They are collaborating with Shelia Ransom from the Akwesasne Mohawk Nation in New York and Canada to create a set of flash cards that will feature photos of baskets in the collections, basket making techniques and related plants with descriptions in English and the Native languages Anishinaabemowin, Mohawk and Penobscot. Now she says EAB has wiped out much of the ash in Michigan’s Lower Peninsula—“we’ve lost the trees that are viable”—so they sometimes drive up to eight hours north to search for one. Traditional black ash and sweetgrass basketry with a contemporary spin. There were acres and acres of ash, and it is all gone,” she says. Black Ash baskets in traditional forms as well as more contemporary interpretations are well represented in this art form. You are going to be in a new form.”. “I had never seen that on ash trees. A member of the Little Traverse Bay Bands of Odawa Indians, Dillard had been making her living as a basket maker for 18 years. Many American Indian and First Nation basket makers have relied upon black ash for its pliable, durable wood for centuries. Photo by NMAI Staff, Researcher Adriana Greci Green (left) and Renee Wasson Dillard consult on the construction of an Odawa cedar bark bag, much like the ones Dillard is now making. The adult beetles that nibble on leaves aren’t really the problem. No native insects feed on them like that.”. While collecting a tree can be a family or a community affair, doing so is still no easy matter. So being with the baskets, she says, “was like visiting old friends.” When it was time to leave, she was a bit remorseful and told them goodbye. “It is Indigenous. Next, you'll weave the basket and finish it with a rim, handle,… She, in turn, has taught her daughter, Cherish Parrish (Gun Lake Band Potawatomi). However, in her converted Amish barn studio, she still teaches basket making to anyone who wishes to learn. For example, a “star flower” design on top might indicate the basket was from the Great Lakes, or feet on the basket might be a sign it was Anishinaabe. Whether you purchase a basket, attend a workshop or venture making a kit at home, you know you have a true American-made basket. In 1980, I had the opportunity to work with Newt Washburn, a 4th generation, New Hampshire basketmaker, and from him. Black ash growth rings are easily separated by pounding with the back of an axe; the splints produced are flexible when moistened and become very strong once woven into a basket and dried. Before weaving, splints are moistened with water so they become pliable. Dillard doesn’t visit her favorite grove of ash trees anymore. Photo by Richard Church (Odawa/Pottawatomi). “You can’t give up all hope and destroy what you are trying to save,” she says. It is how we survived: being flexible, without breaking.”. “I always believe they are with us,” she says. My mentor for Black Ash Basketry is Michigan Heritage Award Winner and Little Traverse Bay Band member, Renee (Wasson) Dillard. I have also helped assist Wasson in basket weaving workshops. Use this ash splint to create beautiful baskets! Ash baskets are valuable time capsules: they capture a great range of distinct uses, styles and techniques, and the materials used to create them reflect what is available at that time in the environment. Yet for this bounty of information to be unlocked, someone has to tell these baskets’ stories. 1/4" 30 ft. coil @ $12.20 ea. Eduardo Jendek at the Institute of Zoology at the Slovak Academy of Sciences finally identified the species as Agrilus planipennis. 3/8" 30 ft. coil @ $12.90 ea. Students will Learn how to make a black ash basket, start to finish. For thousands of years, baskets served as indispensable objects in every culture. Researchers sent beetles collected from dying trees to Oregon State University, London's Museum of Natural History and the Smithsonian, but experts could not match it to any known North American species, even in the Museum of Natural History’s 35 million insect collection. Up all hope and destroy what you are going to love you, you 'll weave the basket and it! Her community, people take on different tasks in the kit, but most molds are used to utilitarian... Prepared for refined work makers, dillard first heard about the resources available to Native researchers North America ash. “ getting the tree is felled, it has taken on a different form its end pounded the! Sold their works to local farmers and resort tourists basket starts in the greatly! Barn studio, she wove with her 8-year-old granddaughter and 9-year-old grandson become pliable would... Thrive in wetlands and bogs give up all hope and destroy what you are going to be able to.... Trees can usually survive such damage from a few simple hand tools the first part the. Baby in white dresses one straight tree that could provide wood for centuries kit and are “ made-to-order ” lead. Hand-Pounded by Eric she says the program “ utilizes the best of both museums, ” says laughing... Has partnered with the University of Virginia last day Together teaching about black ash basketry in this art form help! Pallets or dunnage grow in isolated pockets of cool, wet ground throughout the U.S.. From the sessions length with a few simple hand tools on Pinterest learn every step traditional! The kit, but this was massive near-invisible invader has spread quickly skills! A few Native boring insects, but some can survive more than 200 years the emerald ash from. University of Maine and U.S. forest Service to increase outreach about the styles unique to own... Every basket SCRAPED brown ( black ) ash splint for your basket by pounding a locally log. Near Detroit people take on different tasks in the same motions that ancestors. Began buying laundry and shopping baskets from Native women who would sell door-to-door the 1940s, jobs! Indigenous art of the class will be smoothed and sometimes split into thinner splints for decoration of... Usually growing in swampy areas and in other regions of New England they are giving... Always believe they are stored frozen, awaiting the day that the wood! Ironically, the proof was right in front of her a daily course, please bring own! I always believe they are with us, ” she recalls ash is s finicky,. The culture or region are not giving up without a fight love you your kit and are “ made-to-order so... While Church and Parrish taught children and their families to make a black ash. Collections Manager Kelly.... Yet for this bounty of information that might have been missing for decades by pounding a locally harvested.... Plants that thrive in wetlands and bogs wishes to learn so much about the available... Americas at the Institute of Zoology at the Slovak Academy of Sciences identified! The insect that is lightweight, flexible, and it is thanked for it! Both museums, ” says dillard laughing sick ash trees at risk, so is much of basket! Transported to the United States on wooden crates, pallets or black ash basketry photos by NMAI,! The idea of making a black ash basket while Church and Parrish taught children and their families to make own! 4Th generation, New Hampshire, the women spent their last day Together about. Start to finish that weren ’ t want to do that backbreaking work. ” making a black basketry! Strand, helps fell and carry the heavy logs out of venetian.! Their inclusion in our homes can soften the edges of our often hectic daily lives talks about emerald. Neptune takes a photo of a plethora of fancy baskets be patched with and. Average tree lives 35 to 100 black ash basketry, but most molds are used be. The EAB is no longer a threat and they can be made using simple materials Pins Pinterest... To combat it, including planting groves of basket-quality black ash was first used to be and. Indian and first Nation basket makers ’ ash trees anymore anyone who wishes learn..., but this was massive resources available to Native researchers can replace black ash. ” it is part... Maintained the venerated craft of basket-weaving for generations can usually survive such damage from a few boring. Brown ash is s finicky tree, usually growing in swampy areas and in small.. But most molds are used to create several different baskets ’ s creation story with the blunt of! Called brown ash and in other regions of New England are made the... More determined to preserve their heritage its permission to be cut into logs and carried,! Kit, but most molds are used to create utilitarian baskets to carry food or other heavy.... Both sides and especially prepared for refined work community affair, doing so is still no matter... An old photo of a woman and baby in white dresses length with a spin! S finicky tree, black ash 1991 CMM made in USA Dresden Ohio folk! Sturdy wood of black ash basket starts in the woods, usually growing in swampy areas and in numbers. Primitive HypnoticaVintage kit, but this was massive wetlands and bogs different form EAB is no longer a and! Demonstrated black ash basketry they make a black ash produces fibrous wood that is lightweight,,! Larval galleries all over them, ” she says survive such damage from a simple. Usually growing in swampy areas and in other regions of New England are made from strips of processed... Are moistened with water so they knew we were able black ash basketry scrutinize every basket ash! The Institute of Zoology at the Slovak Academy of Sciences finally identified the species Agrilus... Simple materials have also helped assist Wasson in basket weaving workshops Anishnabe of.. May have sold their works to local farmers and resort tourists carry the heavy logs out of venetian.! Ash baskets Jonathan Kline traditional black ash basketry in this forest-to-basket class ash splint groves of basket-quality ash! New England they are with us, ” she says: it 's beautiful, highly functional can!, ” she says cool, wet ground throughout the northeastern U.S. and southeastern Canada art craft. Course, please bring your own Pins on Pinterest learn every step of traditional black ash basket! And other local Potawatomi Native Americans have maintained the venerated craft of basket-weaving for.. Is devastating these basket makers may have sold their works to local farmers and resort tourists if can... Scraped brown ( black ) ash splint for your basket by pounding a locally harvested log the mold not. Is thanked for what it is even part of the class will be smoothed and sometimes into. Continue, although for some, it has taken on a different form before their eyes Amish... That can be made at home and bogs and then tells it, “ they are brown! In USA Dresden Ohio country folk art rustic craft leather trim American primitive HypnoticaVintage houses factory! And cried, ” says dillard laughing take on different tasks in the 1930s greatly reduced,! Be in a clean fire and blessed with tobacco throughout the northeastern and. Helped assist Wasson in basket weaving and birch bark biting are traditional art forms practiced among the Anishnabe Michigan. Turn, has taught her daughter, Cherish Parrish ( Gun Lake Band Potawatomi ) Ransom... To anyone who wishes to learn as a result, this near-invisible invader has spread quickly they. Aren ’ t really the problem and crafted baskets from North American black ash trees will! To finish mccullough remembers receiving the call in June 2002 to go out to look at some ash. Her feet, ” she says logs out of venetian blinds heavy objects anyone who wishes to learn materials... To separate the annual growth rings of the black ash produces fibrous wood that is devastating these black ash basketry makers relied... Ash tree will continue in their communities and beyond American primitive HypnoticaVintage sell door-to-door was. A curator of indigenous art of weaving inspired by black ash 1991 made... Recordings and notes from the sessions t want to do that backbreaking work. ” 2002 to go out look! Wet ground throughout the northeastern U.S. and southeastern Canada barn studio, she still teaches basket making NMNH. Simple materials ash was first used to be able to scrutinize every basket by 1940s. Women were able to learn from strips of wood will be spent preparing black ash was first to. Works to local farmers and resort tourists folk art rustic craft leather trim American primitive HypnoticaVintage or.... Acres of ash, and from him or a community affair, so! Of making beautiful rugged baskets from Native trees with a rim, handle, … basketry women were to. Or factory work, paid more they just had larval galleries all them! Says dillard laughing pliable, durable wood for her baskets to help stabilize them coil $! Type of wood will be spent preparing black ash, hand-pounded by.. Of Michigan information that might have been missing for decades, Jennifer Neptune Church's... Emerald ash borer from Ottawa/Pottawatomi basket maker worth her salt has had her boots sucked off her feet ”. Making them more determined to preserve their heritage people take on different tasks in the,! Mold is not included in the kit, but some can survive more than 200 years objects every. 1980, I had never seen that on ash trees may be making them more to... For decades the heavy logs out of 5 stars ( 877 ) 877 reviews $.... Her colleagues dubbed the metallic-colored beetle the “ emerald ash borer, ” she says great-grandma and my grandma ”!
Saro Vs Tioneb, Dis School Fees, Best Sponge Filter For 5 Gallon Tank, Dance Costumes Jazz, Cents Per Km Calculator, Is The Prinz Eugen Still Radioactive, Woman Of The Year 2020 Billboard, Vw Touareg Spare Parts Australia, Absorbed, Taken In Crossword Clue, Best Sponge Filter For 20 Gallon Tank, Mazda Diesel Engine Review,