[55] In 1995, the country with the most McDonald's restaurants (aside from the United States) was Japan, followed by Canada and Germany, while the company itself had restaurants in more than 100 countries. This same year McDonald's franchisee Jim Delligatti, created an imitation of the Big Boy — the Big Mac. Although there has been much controversy on the hamburger’s nutritional values, it still remains of America’s top selling food items and is a historic icon. With John Brandcamp, Paul Duberek, Bonnie Eckre, John Eckre. In order to raise awareness among White Castle employees, a newsletter entitled "The hot hamburger" was circulated throughout the company, which challenged the employees to improve the sale of the burgers with a simple idea: to be able to prepare burgers rapidly so anyone could purchase and eat them anytime and anywhere. At the time, the hamburger was typically served with coffee. The widespread appearance of telephones occurred at the beginning of the 20th century, along with other modern means of communication, including radio. To know him is to participate in it, trust me. Alberto Chicote of Madrid makes homemade hamburgers in his kitchen, using Iberian pork along with homemade ketchup and mustard. It is largely based on the 2001 book Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American Meal. The creation of White Tower led to numerous legal battles between it and White Castle during the 1930s. [43] French fries were introduced as a snack in American cafés during the early 19th century,[44] but they did not become popular until large fast food companies such as McDonald's and Burger King incorporated them into their menus during the mid-20th century. Nagreen said he began by selling Hamburg steaks, but these did not have much success because people wanted to freely move around the festival without the need to eat them at his stand. While the inspiration for the hamburger did come from Hamburg, the sandwich concept was invented much later. The Apicius cookbook, a collection of ancient Roman recipes that may date to the early 4th century, details a preparation of beef called isicia omentata; served as a baked patty in which beef is mixed with pine kernels, black and green peppercorns, and white wine, isicia omentata may be the earliest precursor to the hamburger.[11]. The book raised popular awareness about the safety of meat processing and helped lead to the creation of the Pure Food and Drug Act, which was sponsored by the Food and Drug Administration. [10] In Hong Kong, Aji Ichiban competed with large chains before it spread quickly throughout Asia. The modern hamburger was developed in the United States, but by the end of World War II, around the middle of the 20th century, it began to spread to other countries as fast food became globalized. [49][50] George Pullman invented the sleeping car and the dining car in response to the needs of these people in the 1870s. The burger also made appearances in underground comix such as Zap Comix#2 during the late 1960s, in which cartoonist Robert Crumb designed a character called "Hamburger Hi-Jinx". The high production and consumption of beef cattle in the United States made the meat industry increasingly powerful by the end of the 19th century. In the early 20th century, another beverage, Pepsi, was created by pharmacist Caleb Bradham and quickly came to rival the sales of Coca-Cola. [1][39] Mustard is a significantly older condiment, as it is thought that the ancient Romans used a dressing made with non-fermented grapes and grape seeds known as "mustum ardens". An ancient collection of recipes accredit the first minced meat preparation to the 4th century; other historians believe it was the Mongols that spread the tradition in the 13th century when warriors would stash raw meat under their saddles to soften it and cook it. The hamburger first appeared in the 19th or early 20th century. Among the vegetables that come with the hamburger, the first described in the literature on its history is the onion, usually finely sliced in rings. Food also had to be economically affordable for the working class in order for them to maintain their labor and industrial production. At the same time, he became known to some as the Henry Ford of the hamburger,[18] while inventing a restaurant concept he called the "White Castle System", which helped the hamburger achieve fame. Publication date 1914 Publisher American College ofGenealogy Collection americana Digitizing sponsor Google Book from the collections of University of Wisconsin - Madison Language Our first historical story takes place in Seymour, Wisconsin around the year of 1885 when a young man named Charlie Nagreen sold the first hamburger. Technological advances in the field of food preservation, as well as improvements in agricultural production and transportation, made it possible fo… "National Birth of the Burger Day" is celebrated on September 18th to honor the invention of the burger in 1885 at the Hamburg Fair. [9] The McDonald brothers built upon the achievements of their original San Bernardino restaurant when in 1953 they began franchising their now famous chain restaurants, starting in Phoenix, Arizona, and Downey, California (the latter of which is still in operation). The stoves use hinged steel wire gridirons to hold the hamburgers in place while they cook simultaneously on both sides. The Jungle was a milestone in the subsequent history of the hamburger, as it led the American public to force restaurant chains to prove the safety of their cooked meat. Athens (TX) Daily Review, We won, now we celebrate – newspaper guide to hamburger cookoff. [47] Between 1923 and 1931, the "White Castle System" established almost a hundred restaurants in cities throughout the Midwestern United States. In the United States during the 20th century, there have been numerous celebrations marking the centenary of the burger. One was held in Athens, Texas, in November 2006, in honor of Fletcher Davis. Bulldog Restaurant – Bald Knob, Arkansas. An example of this was the prominent appearance of hamburgers in E. C. Segar's Thimble Theatre comic strip, which prominently featured a cartoon character named Popeye the Sailor who ate spinach to sustain his superhuman strength. [8][9] This global expansion provides economic points of comparison like the Big Mac Index,[10] by which one can compare the purchasing power of different countries where the Big Mac hamburger is sold. [13][page needed] Documents show that this preparation style was used by 1887 in some U.S. restaurants and was also used for feeding patients in hospitals; the Hamburg steak was served raw or lightly cooked and was accompanied by a raw egg. As the history of American hamburgers go it is said that Mr. Charlie Nagreen at the age of 15 sold the first hamburger from a food stand that he had at the Outagamie County Fair. [16] Very little mincing was done by medieval butchers or recorded in the cookbooks of the time, perhaps because it was not part of the sausage-making process that preserves meat. [73] One example of this is the Triple Whopper, which surpasses the one thousand calorie threshold established by the Health Strategy Against Obesity, which is promoted by the health institutes of the Spanish Association of Food and Nutrition Safety (AESAN). [7], Many different variants of the hamburger have been created over the years, some of which have become very popular. That is a long time to go between meals. He has taught a course on hamburgers at NYU and has consulted for many hamburger restaurants. This is evident from its detailed description in some of the most popular cookbooks of the day. The hamburger, in some form or another, has appeared throughout history since the early 4th century. 03 /4 The conflicted history of American Hamburger It was in the year 1873 when a steakhouse in New York City known as “Delmonico's” opened and … [33] This became known as the "Hamburger Charlie", and Nagreen's creation was sold at the festival until his death in 1951. The dawn of the 20th century witnessed the need to provide food for people living in highly productive urban centers with high population densities. By the late 19th century, an increasing amount of land was being devoted to cattle and a growing number of people being employed as cowboys, resulting in the United States becoming one of the world's largest producers and consumers of beef. An example of this is Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American Meal, published by investigative journalist Eric Schlosser in 2001, that examines the local and global influence of the American fast food industry. They added coffee, brown sugar and other ingredients to create a unique taste. French fries are an invention of the Low Countries,[43][44] and Belgian historian Jo Gerard mentions that they originated around 1680 in both Belgium and the Spanish Netherlands, specifically in the area of "the Meuse valley between Dinant and Liège". This family-owned restaurant is a popular stopping point … After analyzing their sales, the brothers discovered that, to their surprise, 80% of their revenue was coming from selling hamburgers. The burger was born in a time when people needed to eat both "fast" and "cheap". Today, the US alone eats more than 40 billion burgers annually. The people of this region used to prepare meals with small amounts of fried fish, but when the river froze over and fishing became impossible, they would cut up potatoes and fry them in animal oil. The hamburger, in some form or another, has appeared throughout history since the early 4th century. Records from that time are scarce, however.[2]. [44] This allowed Simplot and McDonald's founder Ray Kroc to collaborate, resulting in ready-peeled potatoes from Simplot's farms being delivered directly to McDonald's kitchens, where they were fried and served to customers. The hamburger bun was invented in 1916 by a fry cook named Walter Anderson, who co-founded White Castle in 1921. Early American preparations of minced beef were therefore made to fit the tastes of European immigrants, evoking memories of the port of Hamburg and the world they left behind. In a 2005 episode of SpongeBob SquarePants, the adventurous title character visits Mr. Krabs's popular Krabby Patty burgers, where hamburgers figure prominently in the story. [39] All of these condiments were incorporated into the classical image of the hamburger during its golden age, the 1940s. Texan journalist Frank X. Tolbert mentions a salesman named Fletcher Davis who served hamburgers in a café at 115 Tyler Street in Athens during the late 1880s. History is rarely straightforward and there are several contenders. Heinz. While its story is long and tiresome – from Mongol horsemen to American county fairs – here’s how America’s favorite sandwich became what we know and love today. The success of the White Castle chain was rooted largely in the power of propaganda, something that was both an original innovation and necessary to change the public's negative perception of the hamburger. The burger was born in a time when people needed to eat both "fast" and "cheap". Chinese immigrants initially opened restaurants to cater to their fellow Chinese-Americans, but they gradually became accepted by the American clientele, sometimes resulting in truly Chinese-American cuisine such as chop suey. America has a lot of history tied in with the hamburger, so it’s worth learning about how this mal became such an icon. The first meat grinder was invented in the early 19th century by the German engineer Karl Drais. It is possible that after the creation of the hamburger by uniting the steak with the bread, vegetables were included to give the finished product a more "natural" appearance and taste. The restaurant was founded on the idea of cooking a hamburger quickly, giving it the honor of being the first fast food restaurant. Lassen's family claims 1900 as the year of his invention. One of these accompaniments, which is still common with today's burger, is ketchup, a type of tomato sauce with a blend of flavors between sweet and sour that was first produced commercially in 1869 by entrepreneur and chef Henry John Heinz in Sharpsburg, Pennsylvania. The burger, shake, and fries—“enduring icons of American cuisine”— are used to symbolize abundance, accessibility, and dominance while ignoring the dark side of those values. McDonald's executive and food scientist Herb Peterson invented the McMuffin in 1972 and also the now famous greeting, "May I have your order, please?". Initially, however, there were safety concerns raised over some fries and the kitchens in which they were prepared, leading some companies, such as White Castle, to remove them from their menus during the 1950s.[44]. As with the invention of the hamburger, the exact origins of the cheeseburger are unknown. By the late 1970s, it had become the third largest hamburger company in the United States. There is some controversy over the origin of the hamburger because its two basic ingredients, bread and beef, had been prepared and consumed separately for many years in different countries before their combination. Despite varieties, there are common elements in all of the narratives, most notably that the hamburger was born as a food associated with major events such as amusement parks, fairs, conferences, and festivals. An example of a restaurant that influenced McDonald's and its imitators is Big Boy, which was first opened in 1936 by Bob Wian in Glendale, California, and became known in that locale as Bob's Big Boy. [60] McLamore had visited the original McDonald's in San Bernardino, California, when it was still owned by the McDonald brothers, and saw the potential that existed for the mass production of hamburgers. [47] During its early years, White Castle emphasized providing quality coffee, and collaborated with universities to publish studies on the nutritional quality of their hamburgers. [12] While not providing a clear name, the first description of steak tartare was given by Jules Verne in 1875 in his novel Michael Strogoff. The hamburger seems to have made its jump from plate to bun in the last decades of the 19th century, though the site of this transformation is highly contested. The Genealogical and Encyclopedic History of the Wheeler Family in America by Albert Gallatin Wheeler, American College of Genealogy , American College of Genealogy. David, E. (1960). One of the oldest references to a Hamburgh [sic] Sausage appeared in 1763 in Hannah Glasse's Art of Cookery, Made Plain and Easy. [8] These two decisions have split the honor of creating the hamburger between these two American cities. [18] Minced meat also came to be used in other popular American foods, including hot dogs and meatloaf.[31]. [49] The American shortage of beef during World War II had little effect on sales across White Castle, due to the effect of vertical integration along with the appearance of fast food chains that operated on a franchise model that emphasized horizontal integration.[47]. The late 20th century witnessed a lawsuit brought by McDonald's against two environmental activists, Helen Steel and David Morris, that was colloquially known as McLibel. [18][22][page needed] However, by the end of the century the Hamburg steak was gaining popularity because of its ease of preparation decreasing cost. [4] Processed cheese, the type of cheese most used in cheeseburgers, was invented in 1911 by Walter Gerber of Thun, Switzerland, although the first U.S. patent awarded for it was given to James L. Kraft in 1916. From quick-service restaurants to diners, and bars to cookouts, the hamburger is a staple on almost any menu. He was so inspired by this visit that he decided to create a similar burger chain himself. Some sources say it began with the Mongols, who stashed raw beef under their saddles as they waged their campaign to conquer the known world. The European discovery of the New World represented a momentous turning point in the history … [45] Originally called coca wine (the trademark was "Pemberton's French Wine Coca"), it may have been inspired by the formidable success of Vin Mariani, a European coca wine. [40] Another ingredient incorporated into the burger, mayonnaise, appears to have been present in 18th century France, after the naval victory of Louis-François-Armand du Plessis de Richelieu in the port of Mahón in Menorca around 1756.[41]. Burger King's core product has long been the Whopper, which was created in 1957 by founder James McLamore and initially sold for 37 cents.[62]. By the 1960s, American society had become highly motorized, largely due to the 1956 Federal Highway Act passed by President Dwight Eisenhower and inspired by the German Autobahn, as well as the impressive growth rates of American automobile manufacturers at the time. Such examples of this include ground meat made from local animals, such as kangaroos in Australia,[70] or Tex-Mex-style dishes like chilli con carne. By the end of the 1980s, the era of slogans in large chain restaurants had begun. Contemporary American society also witnessed the creation of new fast foods that originated from the traditional cuisine of various ethnic groups from around the world. In 1949, an employee named Earl Howell calculated the amount of time that it took to break hamburgers apart in a presentable fashion, eventually leading him to create the perforated burger. The McDonald's successful expansion was mainly due to its use of the franchise system, an innovation borrowed from a sewing machine manufacturer, the Singer Corporation. It also resulted in the creation of a chain of fast food restaurants called Wimpy's in his honor, which sold hamburgers for ten cents. His company was originally called the Anchor Pickle and Vinegar Works, but in 1888 it was renamed F. & J. Some authors question whether the Hamburg America Line was part of this, arguing that the hamburger was created to meet needs that arose amongst immigrants already in the New World. At the end of the 19th century, a new generation of cola emerged, a beverage that would soon join beer as the most traditional drinks served alongside the hamburger. The Hamburger Evolves. [71] American sociologist George Ritzer coined the related concept of "McDonaldization" in his 1995 book McDonaldization of Society. The industrial use of mechanical meat shredding was the technical advance that helped popularize the Hamburg steak. Other similar raw, chopped meats appeared in the 20th century. The McDonald brothers intensively studied the existing kitchen protocol of their restaurants in an effort to improve them. [14] However, it was not until 1840 when Elizabeth Leslie Cook included a sandwich recipe in her cookbook that it appeared in the local cuisine of the United States.[15]. [68][28] By the late 1960s, hamburgers began to grow in size as various burger chains competed with each other, resulting in Burger King launching the Whopper and McDonald's launching the Quarter Pounder. 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